Human Player Strategy
The ultimate goal for the human players is to conserve enough resources to travel eight units of distance and then jump to Kobol. This makes their immediate goal to preserve resources, and their long-term goal to travel enough distance.
On the Humans' Turns
Two things need to be taken into account during a human player's turn: first, which resources are in the most danger, and second, which actions are available to the player.
Each character type has a particular specialization. For example, pilots are good at piloting vipers and destroying Cylon ships, while political leaders are good at overcoming Crisis Cards and using the Quorum deck.
At the start of the game, it is important to make sure that resources lost are not all of the same type. For example, morale is most often lost from Crisis Cards, and the loss of morale can often get out of control. Alternatively, population is usually safe from Crisis Cards, but in grave danger when the Cylons attack.
It is also important to be able to determine when to use the "FTL Control" location. For example, it is often not a good idea to use "FTL Control" when population is running low.
Dealing with Cylon Players
The biggest threat to the human players is posed by the Cylons who have infiltrated the fleet. Human players should try to keep an eye on the negative Skill Cards that come up during skill checks and should question each decision made on Crisis Cards. The sooner the humans can get the Cylon players into the "Brig" location, the better. A Cylon player in the "Brig" has limited impact on the game, and is less harmful if he decides to reveal himself.
Preparing for the Sleeper Agent Phase
It is important for human players to keep in mind that even if they do not start as a Cylon, that may change during the Sleeper Agent phase. At the start of the game, it may be a good strategy for the humans to avoid doing too well, because one of them may become a Cylon player during the Sleeper Agent phase. Performing exceptionally well as a human may make winning the game more difficult for a player who switches over to the Cylon side.
Cylon Player Strategy
The ultimate goal of the Cylon players is to make sure the humans lose the game, usually by focusing on a single resource type and running it down to nothing.
During skill checks, Cylon players should find any and all reasons to avoid helping out. When they do help out, they should make sure to throw in a negative card (or two) to cancel out their help. However, Cylon players should be careful not to look too suspicious and should make sure to use resource types that other players could have thrown in as well. Often times, the best way to avoid suspicion is to make other players seem more suspicious.
It is fairly important for Cylon players to avoid being placed in the "Brig" while unrevealed. While in the "Brig", Cylon players cannot use the special ability on their Loyalty Cards (but may still reveal themselves). It is often worthwhile to throw other players in the "Brig" to avoid suspicion.
A properly timed reveal can be devastating to the humans. Cylon players should pay attention to the special ability of their Loyalty Cards and wait for the perfect time to strike.
Revealed Cylons have one main purpose: to focus on the weakest resource and destroy it. Morale and population are usually the two easiest resources to decrease. Morale is easiest to decrease by Crisis Cards (through the "Caprica" location), while population is easiest to destroy with Cylon attacks (using the "Cylon Fleet" location).
Revealed Cylon players should usually draw piloting or engineering Skill Cards on their turn, since these types appear on Crisis Cards least frequently.